Drinking alcohol is the function of entering water or other fluid in the body through the mouth. Many physiological processes require water. Extreme and insufficient water intake is related to health problems.
Alcohol (also known as ethanol) has many effects on health. Short-term inverse effects of alcohol consumption include intoxication and dehydration. The long-term effects of alcohol consumption include changes in liver and brain and alcohol metabolism. Alcohol intoxication affects the brain, causing bad speech, clumsiness, and delays body reflex. Alcohol stimulates insulin production, which speeds glucose metabolism and can result in low blood sugar, which can cause irritability and possibly death for diabetics. Even the consumption of light and moderate alcohol increases the risk of cancer in individuals.
A report from the World Health Organization of 2014 found that approximately 3.3 million people died annually worldwide due to harmful alcohol consumption. Negative endeavors are related to the amount that no safe lower limit is seen. Some countries have introduced a wine packaging warning message that informs consumers about Alcohol and Cancer as well as Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.
The average lethal dose of alcohol in test animals is 0.45% blood alcohol content. It is about six times (0.08%) of normal drunkenness, but vomiting or unconsciousness in people with low tolerance against alcohol can be very quick. High tolerance of chronic heavy drinkers may allow some of them to be conscious at levels above 0.40%, although there are serious health hazards at this stage.
Alcohol also limits the production of vasopressin (ADH) from the hypothalamus and prevents the secretion of this hormone from the posterior pituitary gland. This occurs when large amounts of alcohol are consumed. It causes high concentrations of water in the urine and vomiting, and the intense thirst that accompanies the hangover.
Stress, hangover, and the oral contraceptive pill can increase the desire for alcohol because these things will reduce testosterone levels and alcohol will increase it faster. Tobacco has the same effect to increase the craving for alcohol.