Prostate cancer is the development of cancer cells in the prostate area, a gland in the male reproductive system. Most prostate cancers are growing at a slow pace; However, some develop relatively quickly. Cancer cells can spread from the prostate to other areas of the body, especially in bones and lymph nodes. It may not have any symptoms in the beginning. In later stages, it can be difficult to urinate, blood in the urine or pelvic pain, back or urine. The disease known as hyperplasia can cause similar symptoms. Other further symptoms include feeling tired due to low levels of red blood cells.
Factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer include old age, family history of disease and race. About 99% of the men over 50% of age are in the case. The relative risk of the first degree increases with the disease two to three times. In the United States, it is more common in African American populations than in white American populations. Other factors that may include, include processed meat, red meat or milk products or some vegetables with low diet. A connection has been found with gonorrhea, but one reason has not been identified for this connection. The increased risk is associated with the BRCA mutation. Prostate cancer is diagnosed by biopsy. Medical imaging can then be done to determine whether cancer has spread to other parts of the body or not.
Prostate cancer screening is controversial. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test detects cancer, but it is controversial whether it improves results. Making informed decisions is recommended when it comes to screening between those ages 55 to 69 years. Testing is done if people with long life expectancy are more appropriate. While 5α-reductase inhibitors appear to reduce the risk of low-grade cancers, they do not affect the risk of high-grade cancers and thus are not recommended for prevention. Supplements with vitamins or minerals do not affect the risk.
Many cases are managed with active monitoring or alert waiting. Other treatments may include surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy or chemotherapy. When it is only inside the prostate, it can be cured. Among those in which the disease has spread to the bones, pain medicines, bisphosphonates, and targeted therapy can be useful among others. The result depends on the age of one person and other health problems as well as how aggressive cancer is. Most men suffering from prostate cancer do not die from the disease. In the United States, the survival rate of 5 years is 99%.  Globally, this is the second most common type of cancer and is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death among men.
In 2012, it took place in 1.1 million men and 307,000 deaths. It was the most common cancer in men in 84 countries, more commonly in the developed world. Rates have increased in developing countries. Due to the increase in PSA testing, detection increased in many areas in the 1980s and 1990s. Prostate cancer has been found in 30% to 70% of people over 60 years of age in studies of men who died due to unrelated reasons.